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If you’re planning on staining or re-staining your wood deck, one of the most important calculations you’ll need to make is determining how much deck your stain coverage will cover. Without understanding stain coverage rates, it’s extremely easy to purchase far too little stain for your project, leaving your deck only partially protected. Or even worse – you could buy way too much stain, wasting money and leaving you with many leftover gallons.
To make sure you get the right amount of deck stain, it’s essential to understand how much area one gallon covers on average. With some simple math using the deck size and stain coverage rates, you can determine precisely how many gallons you need to buy. However, coverage rates aren’t one-size-fits all. The actual area stained by a gallon depends on several key factors.
What Impacts Deck Stain Coverage Rates?
While one gallon covers approximately 150-200 square feet on average, the actual coverage rate can vary quite a bit. The type of wood, age of the deck, stain transparency, surface condition, weather, and other elements all impact the spreading rate of deck stains. Consider the following factors when calculating how much stain you need:
Softwoods like pine are more porous than hardwoods like ipe. The softer grain and pores absorb more stain, resulting in lower coverage rates per gallon. For example, pine may only deliver 100-150 sq ft of coverage per gallon while ipe could cover over 200 sq ft. Less porous woods offer better stain coverage.
Cedar and redwood have naturally weather-resistant properties thanks to their tannins and oils. This protection means they require much less frequent staining than other types of wood. When it is time to apply stain to cedar or redwood, the coverage is greater compared to more absorbent wood varieties.
Newer wood that hasn’t endured years of weathering and use will have a smoother, more even surface that allows for better absorption of deck stains. The wood pores and grain are more open, allowing the stain to penetrate deeply and evenly. This leads to achieving maximum coverage from the product.
On older, weathered deck boards, the wood grain tends to open up over time. Years of sun, rain, snow and foot traffic cause cracks, splinters and graying of the wood fibers. All of these defects in aged wood soak up more deck stain, reducing the coverage rate per gallon. More product is required to achieve full protection.
Deck stains come in different opacity levels, from transparent and translucent varieties that allow wood grain to show through, to solid stains that completely obscure the natural color. More opaque solid color stains often require two coats and more product to fully coat the deck.
On the other hand, lighter transparent and semi-transparent stains allow the wood texture and color to show. Less pigment means the wood pores don’t get clogged as quickly, allowing better spreading and coverage rates per gallon.
If the deck surface isn’t properly cleaned and prepared before staining, it can greatly reduce absorption and coverage of the product. A deck covered in dirt, mildew, flaking paint or gray weathered wood will demand more stain to achieve protection.
Ideally, a deck should be cleaned thoroughly with a pressure washer and deck wash solution to remove grime. Any damaged boards should be replaced, splinters sanded smooth, and loose nails or screws tightened. Proper prep removes contaminants so the stain can properly penetrate the bare wood for maximum coverage.
Climate & Weather
Applying deck stain in hot, dry conditions allows the most even absorption and coverage. However, staining when it’s damp, rainy or humid means the wood retains more moisture. This causes the stain to soak in quickly before it has a chance to spread properly.
Multiple coats may be needed for full protection and appearance in damp weather. Always check forecasts and allow the deck to dry out completely before staining for best results. Consider tents or tarps if the forecast calls for rain soon after application.
Number of Coats
Some deck stains require only one coat for sufficient coverage and protection. But others need two full coats to achieve their intended opacity level, durability and longevity. Two coats double the amount of product required compared to a single-coat stain.
It’s crucial to read the manufacturer’s instructions to determine if one or two coats are recommended. Opting for only one coat when two are required could lead to inadequate protection and early failure of the stain. Adding unnecessary extra coats wastes expensive stain.
How to Calculate Coverage Area
Once you understand what factors impact deck stain coverage, you can determine how much is needed for your specific project. Follow these simple steps:
- Clean your deck thoroughly and make any necessary repairs to ensure proper absorption.
- Use a tape measure to calculate the square footage of your deck’s surface area. Include railings and steps.
- Read the product label or specs for the stain you plan to use. Look for the coverage rate per gallon.
- Divide the total square footage by the expected coverage rate to find the number of gallons needed.
- Add 10-20% more stain to account for uneven absorption, drips, or wood defects.
As an example, if your 500 sq ft deck requires two coats of stain with a 125 sq ft per gallon coverage rate, you would need approximately:
500 sq ft deck / 125 sq ft per gallon = 4 gallons Add 20% more stain = 4.8 gallons
So in total, you would want to purchase five 1-gallon cans of the stain to complete the job correctly. This prevents you from running out halfway through the project or buying too much extra stain.
Getting the Most Out of Your Stain
To maximize the coverage and durability of your deck stain, keep these application tips in mind:
- Only apply stain when the wood moisture content is below 15% for maximum penetration.
- Use a pump sprayer for the most efficient and even distribution of the product.
- Spread an even coat and avoid creating puddles or dry spots.
- Apply stain along the wood grain direction for optimal coverage.
- Add a second coat within 24 hours to maximize adhesion if required.
- Allow proper drying time between coats as indicated on the label.
Also, keep in mind that deck stains work best when reapplied annually before wear and weathering occur. Yearly maintenance coats make the most of your product. They maintain the deck’s freshly stained appearance at a fraction of the cost of full restaining every few years.
Determining deck stain coverage rates is the key first step when planning a staining project. With the right calculations and an understanding of how factors like wood type and weather impact absorption, you can purchase the perfect amount of product.
Applying two coats for full protection reduces the coverage area per gallon. But proper preparation, application and yearly maintenance coats give you optimal coverage from your quality deck stain. Consider the tips in this article to get the most for your money and keep your deck looking freshly stained year after year.